### Using the TNI: the Numeric Indicator with Type-Form Indicators

• Introduction
• Examples

#### Introduction

When the Numeric Indicator or NI is used with Type-Form Indicators it is here called the Typeform Numeric Indicator or TNI to show the different purpose. This is not standard Nemeth nomenclature.

The TNI is required when individual numbers have been set in non-regular type using Type-Form Indicators for Numeric Symbols. [Rule V, Sec. 32b] The TNI is not used when numbers are set in non-regular type simply as a result of being in a phrase or mathematical expression that is set in non-regular type using Type-Form Indicators for Phrases and Mathematical Statements. [Rule V, Sec. 33a] Such a number may, however, require an NI for other reasons.

#### Examples

In these examples the use of a special typeform is indicated in a sort of pseudo-braille by preceding the characters with a bf tag enclosed in angle brackets and using the hashmark, #, for the Numeric Indicators.

An end tag is not indicated since it is not used in braille. The default effect or scope of a type-form indicator applied to a number is the entire number without the need for an explicit termination tag. [Rule V, Sec. 32d] (This is different from the ELI.) Added TNI's or TNI's preceded by other type-form indicators function as termination tags when there is a transition in typesetting within a number. The effect of a type-form indicator applied to a plus sign or minus sign is just the sign. [This is just a guess....]

In cases where the number is not preceded by either a TNI or a plus sign, the number may nonetheless require an NI in certain contexts. This possibility is shown by indicating a potential NI in red type. The only situations where an unsigned or signed negative number is eligible for an NI are those where at least the first digit of the number is in regular type. There are no situations where a signed positive number is eligible for an NI.

A number is defined similarly to a number in MathML as one or more digits and perhaps a decimal point that is used to represent either an integer or real number. The ten numerals, the decimal point when used with numbers, and embedded mathematical (dot 6) commas used to group digits are all numeric symbols in Nemeth.

##### Unsigned Numbers.

Based on Rule V, Section 32b.

An unsigned number set entirely in regular type does not require a TNI although it may require an NI depending on what precedes the number.
123.456 or, possibly, #123.456

An unsigned number set entirely in a particular special type-form requires a TNI before the number and thus not an NI no matter what the context.
<bf>#123.456

An unsigned number where the first digit is in regular type but one or more other digits are set in special type will require a TNI for each transition including a transition back to regular type. It may also require an NI depending what precedes the number. (I actually didn't find an example of this; it is just a guess.
1<bf>#23.45#6 or, possibly #1<bf>#23.45#6

An unsigned number where the first digit is in non-regular type but one or more other digits are set in a different typeform or in regular type will require a TNI before the number and additional TNI's for each transition including any transition back to regular type. It will not require an NI.
<bf>#1#23.45<bf>#6

##### Signed Negative Numbers.

These cases are only implied in the Code book. This Section is an educated guess. But see Rule XIX, Section 134.

A signed negative number set entirely in regular type does not require a TNI although it may require an NI depending on the preceding context. A TNI, like an NI, always follows the minus sign. [Rule II, Section 9a(14)]
-123.456 or, possibly, -#123.456

A signed negative number set entirely in a particular special type-form requires a typeform indicator before both the negative sign and the number. The number requires a TNI but not an NI.
<bf>-<bf>#123.456

A signed negative number where both the sign and the the first digit are in regular type but one or more other digits is set in special type will require a TNI for each transition including any transition back to regular type. It may also require an NI depending on the preceding context.
-1<bf>#23.45#6 or, possibly -#1<bf>#23.45#6

A signed negative number where both the sign and the the first digit are in either the same or different special type but one or more other digits are set in regular type (or a different typeform from the first digit) will require a TNI for each transition. It will not require an NI.
<bf>-<bf>#12#3.456

The two unusual situations of a transition in typesetting between the minus sign and the first digit are handled as follows. If the minus sign is in regular type then the typeform indicator and following TNI are simply placed after the minus sign.
-<bf>#123.456
However if the situation is reversed, the typeform indicator is placed before the minus sign and an NI may be required depending on context.
<bf>-123.456 or possibly <bf>-#123.456

##### Signed Positive Numbers.

Neither a TNI nor NI is ever needed immediately after a unary (or binary) plus sign. This is because the plus sign serves both alignment and identification functions.

A signed positive number set entirely in regular type does not require a TNI nor an NI.
+123.456

A signed positive number set entirely in a particular special type-form requires a typeform indicator before both the plus sign and the number. The number requires a TNI but, as a consequence, not an NI.
<bf>+<bf>#123.456

A signed positive number where both the sign and the the first digit are in regular type but one or more other digits is set in special type will require a TNI for each transition including any transition back to regular type. It will not require an NI because the plus sign is in contact with the first digit.
+1<bf>#23.45#6

A signed positive number where both the sign and the the first digit are in either the same or different special type but one or more other digits are set in regular type (or any different typeform from the first digit) will require a TNI for each transition. It will not require an NI.
<bf>+<bf>#12#3.456

The two unusual situations of a transition in typesetting between the plus sign and the first digit are handled as follows. If the plus sign is in regular type then the typeform indicator and following TNI are simply placed after the plus sign and before the number.
+<bf>#123.456
However if the situation is reversed, the typeform indicator is placed before the plus sign but no TNI is needed before the number because the number is in contact with the plus sign. And, as a consequence, an NI is not needed.
+<bf>#123.456
<bf>+123.456

This page was first posted on February 21, 2002.